As he rounded the penultimate corner, the Australian lost the rear of the car and slid into the barriers, and was seen limping as he emerged from his wrecked R.S. 20.
However, he was cleared by the medical staff on site at the track and returned to the garage to see out the session.
Verstappen's fastest lap was under half a tenth of a second faster than Valtteri Bottas, as teams remain cautious regarding potential rain for Saturday afternoon.
Tomorrow's qualifying session is expected to be run in the rain, however if it is called off and F1 is unable to find a suitable slot to host the session on Sunday morning, the results from FP2 will form Sunday's grid.
Alexander Albon endured a frustrating session, first spinning at Turn 3 before another high-speed spin at Turn 6, which saw him skate through the gravel and flat spot all four tyres.
Sebastian Vettel struggled throughout the session and had a number of laps deleted for exceeding track limits - the four-time world champion was only 16th fastest at the chequered flag.
Bahrain International Circuit - Winter testing