The Woking squad discovered an issue with the Briton's battery after the session, which may have cost Norris a spot in Q2 amid a tight midfield battle.
A statement from the FIA read that McLaren swapped out Norris' MGU-K, energy store and control electronics for new components, which all exceed the number that can be used penalty-free during a season.
"We had an issue with the battery pack in qualifying with his car," said team principal Andreas Seidl after Saturday's session.
"So we lost one-tenth with that, which would have been enough to progress to Q2, then it would maybe have been a different story."
Norris will start from P20, sharing the back row with Sebastian Vettel, who failed to set a time in qualifying after he sustained a turbo issue on his out lap in Q1.
The 19-year-old said that his Q1 exit was the first time this year that he has let himself and the team down.
"I just didn't put my sectors together when it counted and that cost me," said Norris. "There was nothing too much, a quarter of a tenth. Very small mistakes which cost that much stopped me from getting into Q2 today.
"I'm frustrated but at the same time it's the first time this year that I've left myself and the team down. The car was there or thereabouts where it needed to.
"But this is the first time I've let the team down when there was more potential in the car, and Carlos was in Q3 again. I need to move on and look to tomorrow."
Sebastian Vettel also received a new control electronics but was starting at the back of the grid regardless following his qualifying breakdown.