Vettel lost the rear of his car while being pressured by Hamilton for the lead of the race, which caused him to slide across the grass at Turn 3 at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve.
The stewards deemed that the way in which Vettel rejoined the circuit was unsafe and the Ferrari driver received a five-second time penalty, which cost him the race win.
"I don't really care about having credit," Hamilton said. "I don't feel I need that credit to be happy. I think I did a great job this weekend and didn't leave anything on the table except in FP2 (when he crashed).
"But my races have been really really strong and consistent. Even on weekends when we haven't had the car to win, I've been able to put it right there with the front runners.
"My goal on a race weekend is to do the best job for the team, but also to extract above and beyond. My dad always used to say my first go-kart was a four poster bed, because it was a fifth hand go-kart.
"I always liked to think I could bring an extra bit out of the car. It's cool on weekends like this when I feel more comfortable in the car and I can extract a little more.
Despite Mercedes' consistent success this season, Hamilton is still viewing Ferrari as a major threat to the Silver Arrows.
Hamilton believes that Mercedes has "work to do" after watching the pace of Ferrari over the last couple of weekends.
"I don't feel I left anything on the table today," Hamilton said. "I think I conducted myself in the right manner. The guys worked hard to come out with a good result, but we got work to do.
"We saw how quick the Ferraris were this weekend, and they were right there in the race last weekend so it will be interesting to see how it plays out.
"They're quicker than us on the straights. They have another level with the engine they can go to, particularly in qualifying, but also in the race, so there is work to do."
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