The Scuderia outfit was unable to challenge Mercedes for the championship, as the latter dominated the opening half of the season, winning 10 out of the first 12 races.
Ferrari last won a world championship in 2008, when it triumphed in the constructors' fight - its last drivers title came in 2007, when Kimi Raikkonen defeated the McLarens of Lewis Hamilton and Fernando Alonso.
At the Brazilian Grand Prix last month, Leclerc and Vettel clashed for the first time, leading to both of them retiring from the race.
Despite the tensions that has existed throughout the year, Leclerc insists that his relationship with the four-time world champion is more positive that people perceive it to be.
"Our relationship is better than what many people see. There is a great desire to win but also a maturity," said Leclerc.
"Seb is a great champion with a lot of experience, and facing him at Ferrari has been a great challenge and opportunity for me."
Leclerc admits that he was never expecting such a successful opening year at Ferrari, but now has his eyes set on securing a world championship.
"I never expected a debut like this at Ferrari. It was more positive than I expected," he said.
"I knew it was a challenge but also an opportunity. I especially did not expect the seven poles. Next year? I would really like to be able to fight for the title with Seb."
Bahrain International Circuit - Winter testing